Ferdinando I of Habsburg-Lorraine, full name Ferdinando Carlo Leopoldo Giuseppe Francesco Marcellino of Hapsburg-Lorraine, was emperor of Austria and king of Hungary from 2 March 1835 to 2 December 1848. Ferdinando I was son of Francesco I d ' Austria and Maria Teresa di Borbone-Naples.
Since his youth, Ferdinando had a weak constitution, suffering from epilepsy and hydrocephalus, which did not allow him to have an education appropriate to the role he would have to play one day. Her favorite studies, however, were heraldry and the study of technologies, in addition to the agriculture that she greatly favored.
In April 1802, his education was entrusted to the tutor Francesco Maria Carnea Steffaneo, who tried to get close to the personality of the child, acculturating it considerably. In any case, Mother Maria Teresa never cared too much for the child and ended up in the hands of rulers and ladies of her retinue. The first measure adopted by her stepmother Maria Ludovica, then, was the dismissal of most of the teachers who followed Ferdinando believing that they were only a useless expense to be incurred towards a lost cause.
At the age of 15, Ferdinand took as an educator, on the proposal of his stepmother, the Baron Joseph von Erberg, who contrary to what was expected, however, educated him to independence from his mother, teaching him even if late to read and write, as well as ride, dance and introduced him to the study of the piano. Later he became acculturated in the military, scientific and technical arts.
Finally, on September 28, 1830, his official coronation of a crown prince took place, although this would have meant his ascent to the throne on the death of his father, a circumstance that was the subject of disputes due to his personality.
In the summer of 1832, he escaped an assassination attempt on the part of Captain Franz Reindl.
After the death of his father Francis I, on March 2, 1835 he was the successor to the imperial throne, but he gave ample space to his council of ministers, who saw an easy life given his insufficient capacity to impose, to such an extent that historians agree in portraying Ferdinando I as a "weak spirit".
Despite this, Ferdinand had a good knowledge of his empire, like few in his time; he knew five languages, was able to draw very well and his passion for agriculture led him to aim at new reforms for this sector.
His most trusted advisers were his brother Francesco Carlo (father of the future emperor Franz Joseph), Minister Metternich and Count Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky, as well as Archduke Louis of Hapsburg-Lorraine, his uncle.
On 7 September 1836 he officially also received the Bohemian crown in Prague, which culminated with the donation of 50,000 ducats for public and charitable works. On the day of his coronation as King of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (6 September 1838) he promulgated a general amnesty for all political crimes in the Italian provinces.
Ferdinando I married Maria Anna di Savoia, daughter of Vittorio Emanuele I, who always maintained close contact with her country of origin and with her sisters: Maria Beatrice di Savoia (1792-1840), Duchess of Modena; Maria Cristina of Savoy, Queen of Naples and Maria Teresa of Savoy (1803-1879) Duchess of Lucca and then of Parma. The imperial couple had no children. .
After the Viennese insurrection of 1848, Ferdinando I abdicated in favor of his nephew Francesco Giuseppe, son of his brother. The former emperor then spent the last part of his life at the Prague Castle where he died at the age of 82, in 1875.
Among her sisters we remember the first born Maria Luisa of Habsburg-Lorraine who married Napoleon Bonaparte, Maria Leopoldina of Habsburg-Lorraine Empress of Brazil and then a brother Francesco Charles of Habsburg-Lorraine father of the Emperor of Austria Franz Joseph I .