Guglielmo Marconi was born in Bologna, April 25, 1874 by Giuseppe and a young Irish Protestant, Annie Jameson, a religion in which the young Guglielmo was raised due to a specific condition desired by the mother before marriage. He did not do regular studies and was privately educated in Bologna, Florence and Livorno, places where the family had moved. Since he was a boy he felt an irresistible vocation for physics and electricity, and he studied the works of Maxwell, Hertz, Righi, Lodge and others. In 1894 he built, in the barn of the paternal villa of Pontecchio, near Bologna, a laboratory to perform experiments in the propagation of electric waves.
In September 1895 the historic shot to signal the successful reception of the three points over the obstacle of the hill (about 1700 meters). In 1896 he moved, with his appliances, to England where the following year (July 2) obtained the patent for his wireless telegraphy system. In 1897 he founded, at Chelmsford, "The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Limited" (in 1900 he was renamed "Marconi's Telegraph Company Limited"). Also in 1897 he made demonstrations in La Spezia and Rome for the Italian government in which he carried out a 29 km transmission.
In 1899 he established a wireless communication service between France and England via the English Channel.
In 1900 he obtained the famous patent n ° 7777 for "tuned or syntonic telegraphy" which allows tuning the stations on very specific frequencies. It consists of the well known L C circuit (capacitor inductance). Marconi - Famiglia In December 1901 he demonstrated that the radio transmissions were not influenced by the terrestrial curvature by making the connection across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and San Giovanni di Terranova at a distance of 3380 km.
In 1902 experiments on the battleship "Carlo Alberto" of the Italian Navy for long-distance bilateral transmission. Lying in Kronstadt (near St. Petersburg) receives the compliments from the Russian scientist Alexander Popov who defines Marconi as "Father of the Radio".
In 1903 the first International Radiotelegraph Conference was inaugurated in Berlin, where it was proposed to limit the scope of the naval and coastal transmissions to 100 miles. This demonstrates the aversion to the development of wireless telegraphy by cable owners.
In 1904 he received the Laurea Honoris Causa in Engineering from the University of Bologna. In all, in his life he collected, as many as 16 Lauree Honoris Causa conferred upon him from the University of tuitto the world.
In 1905 he married the Scottish nobleman Beatrice O'Brien, with whom she had four children. Obtained the divorce he remarried with the Roman noble Cristina Bezzi Scali from which, in 1930, he had another daughter, Elettra.
In 1807 he established the first Europe-America radiotelegraphic public service.
In 1909, in January, the shipwreck in the Atlantic of the steamboat Republic, colliding due to fog with another steamer, led to the rescue of 2000 passengers from other steamships having been alerted through the telegraph Marconi. This fact created a great sensation.
In December of the same year he obtained the Nobel Prize for physics together with Ferdinand Braun inventor of the cathode ray tube and founder of the Telefunken. April 15, 1912 sinks the transatlantic Titanic and in the tragedy 1000 passengers die while 700 are saved by steamships flocked to requests for help launched by radio. Many more would have been saved if a nearby British steamship had been supplied with radio equipment. The fact greatly increased the popularity of the Marconian invention.
In 1914 he was elected Senator of the Kingdom and Knight of the Grand Cross. In 1915 Italy intervenes in the First World War and Marconi wears the uniform of Tenente del Genio as a volunteer and is present on the fronts and on the sea. He makes the first installations of his equipment on board of airplanes. In 1919 Marconi participates in the Peace Conference in Paris as a member of the Italian Delegation.
In 1920 he bought from the British Admiralty the "Rowenska" yacht that had already belonged to the Archduke of Austria and was kidnapped during the war. Marconi turns it into a floating laboratory for his experiments and Elettra rebuts it.
In 1923, during a long cruise in the Atlantic, Marconi experimented with the short-wave beam system.
In 1925 the company Marconi signs an agreement with the British government for the radiotelegraphic connection between London and the colonies. At the same time Marconi manages to make the first audio connection between England and Australia.
In 1928 the tragedy of the airship Italy. The survivors of the "Red Tent" are saved thanks to the small shortwave radio. Since then, all long-distance aircraft are supplied with short-wave radio equipment.
On March 25, 1930 Marconi, from the Elettra yacht docked in Genoa, via radio switches on the lights of the Sydney world exhibition in Australia at a distance of 22,000 Km. At the same time he sends a greeting to the Australian people, a message clearly perceived by the crowd present at 'inauguration.
On 12 February 1931, Pope Pius XI inaugurated the radio station of the Vatican City, created by Marconi. On May 5, 1934, the University of Bologna awarded him the Onoris Causa Degree in Physics. In 1934 demonstration of the "blind navigation" or the microwave beacon. Marconi leads the Elettra to the entrance of the port of Sestri Levante without the use of the compass and without visibility of the coast.
In 1935 he made some studies on the reflection of microwaves. Starting from these studies the British invented the radar. On 20 July 1937 Marconi dies.