Born on April 29, 1818, Alexander was the eldest son of Nicholas I, and during his youth he had been thoroughly prepared for his sovereignty.
The most important reform of the Tsar during his reign was the emancipations of Russia's serfs , saying: "It is best to abolish the slave servitude from above, rather than wait for abolition to begin from the bottom."
On his own initiative, and with the collaboration of the nobility, the "Ordinance on peasants liberated from slave servitude" was published on February 19, 1861, with which more than twenty million peasants and their families became personally free.
Less fortunate was the economic regulation, as the majority of peasants, who had only inadeguate land, were forced to run into debts , without being able to achieve economic independence.
He deeply affectedthe domestic political life with other important reforms; the university statute in 1863 led to the restoration of academic self-government: and the establishment of regional self-government organs (zemstvo) in 1864, followed in 1870 by a civic law, including the society in in the formation of political life.
The law reform (1864), with the creation of magistrates, contributed to impartiality in the jurisdiction. The army reform of 1874 put the mandatory general military service in place of military service of 15 years.
Alessandro's reforming will was shaken by the Polish revolt of 1863, brytally repressed, and by the growing of the revolutionary opposition
After a first political attack (1866), to which the government replied with a reactionary internal policy, the Tsar fell victim to the bomb of a revolutionary on March 13, 1881.