Giuseppe Garibaldi was born in Nice July 4, 1807. Restless character and eager for adventure, as a young man embarks as a sailor to take life on the sea.
In 1832, just twenty-five years old he was captain of a merchant ship and in the same period he began to approach the European and Italian patriotic movements (such as the Mazzini one of "Giovine Italia"), and to embrace the ideals of freedom and independence.
In 1836 he landed in Rio de Janeiro and from here began the period, which will last until 1848, in which he will engage in various war undertakings in Latin America. He fights in Brazil and Uruguay and accumulates a great experience in guerrilla tactics based on movement and surprise actions. This experience will have great value for the formation of Giuseppe Garibaldi both as a leader of men and as an unpredictable tactician.
In 1848 he returned to Italy, where the independence motions have broken out, which will see the famous Cinque Giornate di Milano. In 1849 he participated in the defense of the Roman Republic along with Mazzini, Pisacane, Mameli and Manara, and is the soul of the Republican forces during the fighting against the French allies of Pope Pius IX. Unfortunately, the Republicans must yield to the preponderance of the enemy forces and Garibaldi on July 2, 1849 must abandon Rome.
From here, passing dangerous paths along which many faithful companions lose, among whom the beloved wife Anita, manages to reach the territory of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Then begins a period of wandering around the world, mostly by sea, which leads him finally in 1857 to Caprera.
Garibaldi, however, did not abandon the unitary ideals and in 1858-1859 met with Cavour and Vittorio Emanuele, who authorized him to constitute a body of volunteers, a body that was called "Cacciatori delle Alpi" and to which Garibaldi was placed.
Participates in the Second War of Independence seizing various successes but the armistice of Villafranca interrupts its operations and its Hunters.
In 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi is promoter and head of the expedition of the Thousand; sailed from Quarto (GE) on 6 May 1860 and landed in Marsala five days later. From Marsala his triumphal march begins; beats the Bourbons to Calatafimi, reaches Milazzo, takes Palermo, Messina, Syracuse and completely free Sicily.
On 19 August it lands in Calabria and, moving very quickly, throws the confusion in the Bourbon rows, conquering Reggio, Cosenza, Salerno; on September 7 he enters Naples, abandoned by King Francis II and finally finally defeats the Bourbons on the Volturno.
On October 26, Garibaldi meets in Vairano with Vittorio Emanuele II and places the conquered territories in his hands: he then goes back to Caprera, always ready to fight for national ideals.
In 1862 he took the lead of an expedition of volunteers in order to free Rome from the papal government, but the enterprise was opposed by the Piedmontese from whom he was arrested on August 29, 1862 in Aspromonte.
Imprisoned and then freed again he repairs on Caprera, while remaining in contact with the patriotic movements that operate in Europe.
In 1866 he took part in the Third War of Independence under the command of Volunteer Departments. Opera in Trentino and here he captures the victory of Bezzecca (July 21, 1866) but, despite the favorable situation in which he was against the Austrians, Garibaldi must evacuate the territory of Trentino on the orders of the Piedmontese, to which dispatch responds with that "Obedi ", remained famous.
In 1867 he was again the head of an expedition aimed at the liberation of Rome, but the attempt failed with the defeat of the Garibaldi forces in Mentana by the Franco-Pontificals.
In 1871 he took part in his last war effort fighting for the French in the Franco-Prussian war where, although he managed to capture some successes, nothing can avoid the final defeat of France.
Finally he returns to Caprera, where he will spend the last years and where he will go out on June 2, 1882.